1. Sequential product development process

Sequential development of the new product was developed by NASA in the early 60s of the last century and it is called a Phased Review Process model. It has been adapted and developed by the enterprises. It involves moving the innovation process from department to department with the constant manager’s change of certain development stage.

The NPD process has been divided into functional tasks assigned to the department of the company but the start of another tasks succeeds after completion, reconciliation and possible revision of the preceding tasks. The action is listed as the existence of barriers between the tasks. This process burdened with a number of drawbacks:

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2. General work’s scope of technical production’s preparation

The process of technical preparation of product creation is a typical multi-parametric, deliberately targeted, scantly-structured, complex system with strong influences of stochastic factors (random). Below chart shows technical preparation of production scheme.

In the early stages of the technical preparation of production the primary task is to ensure the achievements of certain product parameters, and the next- the choice of options and optimization of technological processes. A characteristic feature of technical preparation of production is large variety of opportunities to achieve goals, and their implementation requires the establishment of specific steps and actions. The scope of pre-production (according to the design phases) includes:

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3. Constructional preparation of production

The scope of constructional manufacturing preparation includes:

  • design of activities related directly or indirectly to the construction of products,
  • design of conventional product exploitation of processe’s use,
  • development of guidelines for the transportation and installation of products.

Scope and effort of structural production preparation depends on many factors, of which the most important are:

  • type of the constructed product (structural complexity of the product grade),
  • the size and type of production,
  • the degree of product novelty and mastering of similar goods production,
  • technical level and modern enterprises.

As part of the constructional preparation of production there are two types of activities that are performed, different in terms of time horizon:

  • associated with long-term prospect of the modern design solutions implementation,
  • proper production, which is associated with the implementation of the tasks planned for a given calendar year.

The concept of product development may involve modernization of the product or development of a completely new product.  In both cases, the scope of work will be differentiated. General stages in constructional preparation of production for new development process has been presented in chart.

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4. Technological preparation of production

Technological preparation of production follows the preparation of construction and represents the next major phase of the technical production preparation and was shown in below chart. Technological preparation of production is closely related to the preparation of construction and requires good collaboration between the designer and technologist when deciding on the variant choice of the design solution of certain good.

The basic tasks of the product’s technological manufacture preparation, implemented in the technology department of the company are as follows:

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5. Concurrent engineering

Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to integrate the activities aimed at the customer and the customer’s requirements of design and manufacturing processes. As a result of such actions in decision-making processes and conceptual within the product life cycle (concept, design, manufacture, quality and cost control, use, disposal) everyone should be involved that has a contact with the product (designers, technologists, users, suppliers, collaborators, vendors). Quite similar definitions presents Palos Verdes:

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6. Models of concurrent product development

In the literature there is the classification that distinguishes five models categories of new product development in concurerent terms:

  1. cross-functional models,
  2. decision-stage models,
  3. conversion-stage models,
  4. response models,
  5. network models.

They can be described as follows:

Cross-functional models teams

This model is based on the multi-functional interaction departments: research and development, marketing, production and technology.

Emphasis is put on the effective participation of customers and suppliers in the design process and efficient realization of marketing functions: management of price, distribution, analysis of the marketing environment, marketing research and market segmentation. The role of the research and development department is the most important in the early stages of the NPD, but decreases with the severity of the process. The role of production increases with the approach of the development phase to commercialization phase, the implementation of the new product on the market.

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7. Planning and structuring of new product development process

The process of new product development is not an easy process for the company and requires many additional activities which the company should do. It is built of mutually influencing each other actions that without proper structuring, planning, prioritization and implementation can become inefficient. The process of organizing consists of a set of tasks to accomplish, transformation of the general tasks, determination of the attorney’s power and accountability, and selection of people responsible for carrying out the particular tasks. The procedure for the development of a new product depends on many factors: business, industry, type of product. The management of the company which should support and monitor the process plays an important role in both the planning and organizing.

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8. Streams of information in the process of new product development

Every organization is a system that processes data and information. The development process of a new product depends on the provided data and the extent of their use. The main sources of data needed to guide the product development process include:

  • the marketing department,
  • logistics department,
  • research and development sector,
  • experts, scientists,
  • production department,
  • department of technology,
  • the finance department,
  • customers (voice of market),
  • competition,
  • suppliers,
  • other participants who are involved in the activities of the company.

These data should be read and interpreted in terms of the process specification. It may lead to the situation that there will be too many of data to make a proper interpretation. The appropriate hierarchies should be given to them and organize in such a way as to be able to use them for the necessary processes and be able to refer to them when making decisions.

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9. Information technology in concurrent product development process

Systems that employ more elements than necessary for functional reasons focused on increased reliability, there are developed techniques and software tools for the design of products and their visualization on the plane (2D) or in space (3D), quality control, process planning, computer-aided design, quality, planning, engineering, logistics. These systems provides information necessary for the geometric description of a new product.

Appropriate data structures, information, a common data model and information allow to integrate partial solutions. The flow of information must also take place in the opposite direction so that the acquired knowledge can be checked and verified to correct and update process.

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10. Strategies of new product due to the methodological approach

Strategies of a new product are the intentional ways of providing the ability to design, develop and introduce new products to the market. Block diagram is shown on chart. Among the company’s strategy, its market situation and the choice of methods, there is dependency. The project team responsible for the introduction of new products should be familiar with all the determinants that may influence the decision.

The criteria that ought to be considered when choosing a methodological basis for project teams, the pattern of exploration, the current portfolio of products, design and manufacturing capabilities and previous experience of the company.

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