Methods of the value analysis are used to design and optimize systems (products, processes, infrastructures, services, organizations). They aim at achieving full satisfaction of users at lower costs. Methodology of conduct applied in this analysis involves transition from the examined item to the model of a function.
Their analytical strength results from the fact that they take into account the two logic: functional and descriptions. Functional logic that explains what should be the response of the system to the needs and limitations of users in all situations. Description logic that determines which components of the solution or resources are at stake, to bring the answer to that function. Function expresses the relationship between the product and one or more components of the external environment.
Methods of value analysis should be used by the multidisciplinary group, combining the necessary competencies or knowledge, skills or experience. Methods of value analysis are, however, an effective systematic procedure allowing to manage the products, raise productivity, optimize the information and the organization system. Value analysis allows to avoid:
- complex and sluggish solutions that are difficult to apply,
- unnecessary actions, not connecting to the real needs,
- poorly implemented core activities.
In the combination with these methods of value analysis it is even more favorable and effective:
- the risk analysis (AMDEC-system) method, which lets you choose from a number of potential solutions for all elements of the system, those that show the lowest risk of poor quality,
- synthetic evaluation of foreseeable costs (mainly analogous or parametric methods),
- optimization of diversity, which aims to seek standardization of components,
- guides design, allow you to specify procedures for product design.
Value analysis made at the beginning of the NPD process allows not only to determine the strictly necessary elements of the solution for each of the separate functions but also to detect as early as possible elements of “unfounded”. Miles brings value analysis methodology to the analysis of the functions carried out in three main stages:
- identification of the function,
- analysis and evaluation of the various functions by comparing their costs,
- finding alternative ways to fulfill those functions.
The method creator claims that the rationalisers’ result is limited when they focus on the examined product instead of their aims. This enables to release the mind from already existing solutions and creative search for the one that comply established functions. Test cycle in value analysis includes the following phases:
- orientation – identify the problem, determine the functions that the product meets,
- information, designed to collect data from various sources characterizing the product,
- speculation, that is the implementation of the basic creative work, determine the different variants ties,
- solutions analysis – estimation of individual solutions and choose the best of them,
- planning – determining the use of the new idea,
- implementation – implementation of the above, established program,
- maintenance in practice of introduced product, observation and control of this activity.
Subsequent publications are more or less a development of this basic scheme of conduct. They amount to addition or some of certain steps or their combination, e.g., the following steps are distinguished:
1 preparation of the human factor,
2 choice of subject tests,
3 recognition of the system,
4 collecting information,
5 function analysis and the search for new solutions,
6 development of the detailed design,
7 implementation of the project.
Contemporary interpretation is based on the implementation of this method in innovation processes and, most of all, designing new approaches to products.
This method, moreover, reduces the cycle of constructive preparation substantially and allows for flexible forming and adjusting of the product so that the clients’ needs are satisfied