The scope of constructional manufacturing preparation includes:
- design of activities related directly or indirectly to the construction of products,
- design of conventional product exploitation of processe’s use,
- development of guidelines for the transportation and installation of products.
Scope and effort of structural production preparation depends on many factors, of which the most important are:
- type of the constructed product (structural complexity of the product grade),
- the size and type of production,
- the degree of product novelty and mastering of similar goods production,
- technical level and modern enterprises.
As part of the constructional preparation of production there are two types of activities that are performed, different in terms of time horizon:
- associated with long-term prospect of the modern design solutions implementation,
- proper production, which is associated with the implementation of the tasks planned for a given calendar year.
The concept of product development may involve modernization of the product or development of a completely new product. In both cases, the scope of work will be differentiated. General stages in constructional preparation of production for new development process has been presented in chart.
The typical stages of the constructional preparation of production in the development of the new product include:
- technical and operational requirements,
- the initial structural assumptions,
- preliminary design,
- technical, working project,
- prototype examination,
- informational, tentative series,
- generative series.
Chart no. 3 General stages in constructional preparation of production for new development process.
Technical and operational requirements are still established in the conceptual, experimental phase of product and define as follows:
- technical description,
- certain technical and operational indicators,
- requirements concerning the installation of the product,
- list of technical parameters.
In order to determine the structural assumptions (initial) the following data are necessary, namely:
- comprehensive technical and economic analysis product fabrication’s of technical preparation expediency,
- feasibility analysis of the generative task,
- determination of how to perform the work.
All the basic functional and managing units of the company are involved in development of structural assumptions.
Preliminary design determines the technical concept of solution. The primary objective of the preliminary design development is the evaluation of the concepts and the proposed design solutions. The preliminary design documentation includes as follows:
- technical description of the product,
- initial assembly drawings of the product and its most important units,
- basic calculations justifying the chosen or designed parameters,
- kinematic diagrams,
- assumptions for the unification of parts or units.
A preliminary draft is compiled by the design of complex original products and its implementation requires the highest qualifications.
The technical working project is created for the selected variant of the preliminary design in order to prepare the documentation necessary to complete the prototype. It includes as follows:
- design documentation,
- parts of drawings,
- ideological schemes,
- strength calculations, and other,
- specifications of parts,
- the parts lists,
- brief technical description of the product,
- technical conditions for the prototype,
- prototype test program,
- sheet patent activity,
- temporary operating records,
- list of documents included in the project.
The primary objective of the prototype implementation is to validate the correctness of technological and structural solutions in operating conditions and the accuracy of the documentation. Prototypes being made subordinates comprehensive tests and research by the developed program.
In prototype research the durability and reliability research of the product is planned. An important element of the study is also the structural manufacturability analysis and checking the structure in terms of standardization.
The primary objective of the implementation and research of tentative series is the final adjustment of the structural documentation, evaluation of the production technology and confirmation of the results compatibility with the results of a prototype research or information series done independently.
A tentative series, then (after checking the correctness of Technology) generative series are started after the prototypes and informational series performance.
Subsequent production series should be a subject of continuous and systematic research and analysis, which provide information leading to the improvement and development of the product.
The design process of product construction is also associated with the group of structural features of designed product of the product, that after ensuring the quality and operating requirements make it possible to manufacture a product with a minimum investment.
A basis for the construction design process of industrial goods constitutes three criteria, namely:
- the possibility of carrying out the functions that the product should fulfill,
- optimize its conditions of use,
- productivity and minimize the cost of own production.
Input data for the design are really important. It can be divided into three sets:
- design features: they define the structures in the same way (geometrical features, material parameters, parameters set during installation),
- structural properties: define the relationship between the product of its environment,
- object state variables: the variables characterizing the conditions, processes or phenomena occurring in the object.
The design process of the product structure is a complex process carried out in several phases. The sequence of actions in the design process is dependent on the structure of the product or criterion distinguishing the certain item. Aspects allowing to extract the structural elements of design are as follows:
- the main decisions made in the process,
- diversity of individual actions,
- distinctness of the performer.
Producibility of the product construction- a set of design features that make the process of manufacture of all parts and assembly of the product is carried out in real conditions of production in the most economical manner.
In order to achieve producibility of structure, the following should be used:
- minimum number of components,
- the greatest number of standard parts, unified, identical or similar,
- optimal use of cheap and available materials,
- materials and shape can provide a low cost of manufacturing process, assembly and auxiliary processes.
Increasing number of requirements is the basis for the development and improvement of the product and its design process of construction. General scheme of the design process of product construction is shown in below chart.
In the process of product design the two basic methods of optimization are used, namely:
- method of structural variants evaluating them by fulfilling certain design assumptions,
- analytical method based on mathematical analysis in which the result of the calculation determines the choice of a specific design solution.
In the technological preparation of production, documentation plays an signifacant role, and it is undoubtedly the knowledge source concerning the process and production. The technological documentation is the group of documents, in which all information is included and necessary recommendation for the process realization.
Chart no. 4 Scheme of product construction’s the design process
Documentation used in the company covers various aspects of its business. It can be divided into three groups:
The technical documentation is a collection of documents defining the product structure (structural documentation) and technology (technological documentation) of its implementation.
The scope and preparation method of the various documents is varied and depends on many factors and especially on the complexity of product design and target production volume.