In the literature there is the classification that distinguishes five models categories of new product development in concurerent terms:
- cross-functional models,
- decision-stage models,
- conversion-stage models,
- response models,
- network models.
They can be described as follows:
Cross-functional models teams
This model is based on the multi-functional interaction departments: research and development, marketing, production and technology.
Emphasis is put on the effective participation of customers and suppliers in the design process and efficient realization of marketing functions: management of price, distribution, analysis of the marketing environment, marketing research and market segmentation. The role of the research and development department is the most important in the early stages of the NPD, but decreases with the severity of the process. The role of production increases with the approach of the development phase to commercialization phase, the implementation of the new product on the market.
Integrated model of cross-functional work teamwork
Following the launch of a new product, marketing and production dominates.
In subsequent phases of the market life cycle it is important to maintain cooperation, free communication and pursuit of the common objectives which should be as follows: effective design process, production of a new product without the non-compliance and to optimize the NPD. Thanks to the shared responsibility of managers for the successful completion of the process, the boundaries between departments are not clear.
Studies have shown that the formation of multi-functional teams is a efficient model and effectively leads to a reduction of development time of discontinuous product innovations (those that create new patterns of user behavior).
Integrated model of cross-functional work teamwork has been shown on chart below.
R.G. Cooper and E. J. Klienschmidt show the model as a series of decisions that must be taken during the process- just as models of type-action phase.
Like the activity stage models, many of this models also facilitate interaction through the use of feedback loops. However, a criticism of these models is that such feedback is implicit rather than explicit. The importance of the interaction between functions can not be stressed enough- the use of feedback loops helps to emphasis this.
Chart Stage-Gate model
Model: conversion-type process.
The author of this model is D. Schon. The model assumes that the development of a new product is a “black box” which, on the one hand, includes data (customer needs, ideas, elements of innovation, opportunities, ideas, loose thoughts, information about products) on the other hand, includes the final results. Transformations take place inside to obtain the final result. It is characterized by a lack of specific solutions, but it is important to be able to define the input data and to give the final product the original shape of the model.
Reactions models by Becker and Whister uses the behavioral aspects in the analysis change. They pay particular attention to the individual or organizational reaction to a proposal for a new idea, especially in the phase of the study and evaluation of ideas for new product.
Network models are related to the development of knowledge that takes place during the new product development process. Chart below presents this model. Enterprises benefit from both internal sources (such as marketing department, research and development department) as well as external sources such as expertise knowledge, the results of the tests. The information in the NPD process plays an important role both in the early stages of product design and the implementation on the market. Determination of objectives, the process of planning and structuring of the NPD process would not be possible without knowledge. The main goal of these models is that the knowledge in the process of developing a new product is accumulated gradually, in accordance with the progress of the project.
Every process of implementation of a given project is unique due to the product. The exhibited models were constructed in order to facilitate the process of the new product implementation to the market as well as to satisfy the various organizations needs including optimization of the economic effects and managing the product development according to the enterprise’s strategy.
Network model of new product development